A photo that was taken from the book titled ‘Mecanisme de la Physiology’ (Mechanism of Physiology) by Duchenne de Boulogne’s (1806 - 1875). The good doctor has applied electrodes to the face of a man who volunteered for the procedure. Who, in their right mind, would willingly volunteer for this?
These volunteers were inmates at the Salpetriere Asylum in Paris, where Duchenne worked. He conducted these experimental methods because he believed that the movements within the facial muscles represented ‘movements of the soul.’ His theory was that the procedure would be useful in classifying one’s emotions through these muscle actions. As though it was a way to cleanse oneself of negative emotions. Weird!